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Table 2 Description of CEF-B tests and scientific rationale for controlling measurement errors and methodological bias

From: Pieces of evidences of reliability of the Brazilian version of the Child Executive Functions Battery (CEF-B)

  Tests Description/objective Proposals for measurement errors and methodological biases control
Inhibition Stroop Consists of ignoring the reading of colored words written with non-congruent printing ink (for example, “blue” written in red), to focus on the color of the ink (interfering condition) -Preliminary control conditions (naming and reading)
-Unlimited time, no mistake correction, consideration of time, and errors
Tapping Tap or not on the table depending on what the examiner is doing: (1) Go/no go: respond if the examiner types once and inhibit if he types twice. (2) Conflict: antagonistic conditioning (tap once if the examiner taps twice and vice versa) while incorporating a new No go condition (do not tap if the examiner taps with two fingers) -Preliminary phase of simple conditioning (repeat a motor action in echo)
Cross-out Joe Identify and cross out a visual target (Joe) among several morphologically similar distractors -Evaluate inhibition in a long-term task
Working memory Verbal updating Sequentially recall the most recent elements (the last three or four) of a series of letters of varying length -Task adjusted to span capacities.
-Variation in the amount of information to be updated to control the executive load (contrasted with items where no update is required)
Visuospatial updating Sequentially recall the most recent items (the last three or four) touched in a series of blocks of varying length
Dual task Simultaneously perform a figure span task and a visuomotor clown head crossing test - Preliminary execution of both tasks individually
- Task adjusted to span capacities
Flexibility Trail Making Test (TMT) Connect circles on a sheet of paper that contain numbers or letters, alternating numeric and alphabetical order (1-A-2-B...). - Control of numerical and alphabetical chain mastery, visual exploration and perceptual-motor skills in two preliminary parts (numbers then letters, respectively)
Kids Cards Sorting Test (KCST) Initiate, maintain and change the ranking rule of a series of 48 test cards according to 4 target cards that vary in three dimensions (form, color, number), based on the examiner's feedback -Only cards that are unambiguous regarding the pairing with the target cards are used
- The rules are presented to the child, which reduces the possibility of not understanding the categories
Frog test The child must deduce the logical rules according to which a frog moves around several water lilies disposed in a lake. The child must also adapt to the actions of the frog, which changes the movement rule without previous warning. - Random and variable rule change to make the test less predictable
Planning Scripts The child must put in order a sequence of phrases, elaborating a coherent script according to a given title and disconsidering those that are not relevant (intruders) -New task created to evaluate the child’s ability to anticipate the order necessary for the execution of a daily action
Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) Copy the ROCF spontaneously and progressively recopy the figure according to a program consisting of five successive stages of different colors. -Measurement of the facilitating effect of copying with the program in contrast to spontaneous copying
-Rigorous and objective instructions for the evaluation of the precision and location of the figure elements
8 Mazes The test comprises eight mazes of increasing difficulty. For each maze, a dinosaur has to find its way out. The test requires the child to draw, with a pencil, the path connecting the starting point to the maze’s exit. -Consider time and error