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Table 9 Models’ comparison for invariance tests for URS for students and professionals invariance (joining samples 2 and 3; N = 1084)

From: Factorial validity and measurement invariance of the uncertainty response scale

Invariance level Definition Model χ2 df Δ χ2 Δ df p CFI RMSEA Δ CFI Δ RMSEA Δ SRMR
Configural invariance Same factor structure M1 1345.358 538     .93 .037    
Metric invariance Same factor structure and factor loadings M2-M1 1388.303 560 42.946 22 .005 .93 .037 − .002 0 .001
Scalar invariance Same factor structure, factor loadings, and intercepts M3-M2 1483.317 585 95.013 25 < .001 .92 .038 − .006 .001 .000
Error variance invariance Same factor structure, factor loadings, and error variances M4-M3 1486.278 591 2.962 6 .814 .92 .037 0 − .001 .000
Structural invariance Same factor structure, factor loadings, error variances, and factors’ covariance M5-M4 1576.363 619 90.085 28 < .001 .92 .038 − .005 .001 .000
  1. χ2 Chi-square, df degrees of freedom, Δ χ2 difference between model’s χ2, Δ df difference between models’ df, p p value, CFI comparative fit index, RMSEA root mean square error of approximation, Δ CFI difference between model’s CFI’s, Δ RMSEA difference between model’s RMSEA, Δ SRMR difference between model’s standardized root mean square residuals, M1 to M5 models tested