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Table 7 Models’ comparison for invariance tests for URS for gender invariance (subsample from samples CFA1 and CFA2: N = 520; 268 females; 252 males)

From: Factorial validity and measurement invariance of the uncertainty response scale

Invariance level Definition Model χ2 df Δ χ2 Δ df p CFI RMSEA Δ CFI Δ RMSEA Δ SRMR
Configural invariance Same factor structure M1 1050.663 538     .90 .043    
Metric invariance Same factor structure and factor loadings M2-M1 1077.083 560 26.420 22 .234 .90 .042 − .001 − .001 .002
Scalar invariance Same factor structure, factor loadings, and intercepts M3-M2 1167.271 585 90.189 25 < .001 .89 .044 − .012 .002 .000
Error variance invariance Same factor structure, factor loadings, and error variances M4-M3 1169.948 591 2.676 6 .848 .89 .043 .001 − .001 .001
Structural invariance Same factor structure, factor loadings, error variances, and factors’ covariance M5-M4 1211.157 616 41.209 25 .022 .89 .043 − .003 0 .001
  1. χ2 Chi-square, df degrees of freedom, Δ χ2 difference between model’s χ2, Δ df difference between models’ df, p p value, CFI comparative fit index, RMSEA root mean square error of approximation, Δ CFI difference between model’s CFI’s, Δ RMSEA difference between model’s RMSEA, Δ SRMR difference between model’s standardized root mean square residuals, M1 to M5 models tested