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Table 2 Fit statistics of the hypothesized models for Brazil and Portugal

From: Authentic Leadership Questionnaire: invariance between samples of Brazilian and Portuguese employees

  Sample Number X 2 X 2/df df NFI CFI PNFI SRMR RMSEA 90 % CI Model AIC
First-order factor model Brazilian 1019 863.38 8.81 98 .931 .938 .760 .041 .088 .082–.093* 939.12
Portuguese 842 549.78 5.61 98 .903 .919 .738 .05 .074 .068–.080* 626.08
Second-order factor model Brazilian 1019 929.95 9.30 100 .926 .933 .771 .044 .090 .085–.096* 1001.95
Portuguese 842 569.45 5.70 100 .900 .916 .750 .047 .075 .069–.081* 641.45
  1. X 2 chi-square, df degrees of freedom, NFI normed fit index, CFI comparative fit index, PNFI parsimony normed fit index, SRMR standardized root mean square residual, RMSEA root mean square error of approximation, CI confidence interval, Model AIC Akaike’s information criterion
  2. *p < .001