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Table 4 Synthesis of long-term results by strategy

From: Scoping review of 30 years of suicide prevention in university students around the world: efficacy, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness

  Tracked by   Components Audience Knowledge of suicide prevention Self-efficacy in suicide prevention Gatekeeper behavior Help-seeking behavior (2 months) Personal stigma and public stigma Treatment linkage (2 months) Problem solving skills (1 month) Rates of depressive and suicidal symptoms (1 month) Completed suicide (6 years)
Gatekeeper Harrod et al., 2014 Tompkins & Witt, 2009 Does not inform Peer counselors Long-term effect There was no evidence No evidence of effect       
Yonemoto et al., 2019     No effects       
Multimodal Harrod et al., 2014 e Joffe, 2008 Reduction of means, gatekeeper, and brief intervention           decrease
Robinson et al., 2018
Kreuze et al., 2017 King et al., 2015 Screening, feedback, and online counseling Students     Increase Decrease Increase    
Robinson et al., 2018 Fitzpatrick et al. (2005) Screening and psychoeducation Students        No effect Decrease  
Robinson et al., 2018 Kovac and Range (2002) Screening and therapeutic writing      Statistically insignificant increase     There was no effect  
Witt et al., 2019 Thompson et al. (2010) Psychoeducation, gatekeeper, screening, improvement of counseling services          Decrease (after 1 year)