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Table 3 Summary of short-term results by strategy

From: Scoping review of 30 years of suicide prevention in university students around the world: efficacy, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness

Strategy Tracked by Primary study Components Audience Outcomes
Knowledge of suicide Knowledge of suicide prevention Self-efficacy in suicide prevention Attitudes towards suicide Behavioral intent
Psychoeducation Harrod et al., 2014 Abbey 1989   Students Increase Increase Small and non-significant increase   
Abbey, 1989 Experiential and didactic Increased more than the experiential     
Holdwick, 2000 Motivational enhancement    Effect size a little larger in relation to the didactic and experiential components   
Gatekeeper Harrod et al., 2014 Drabek, 1991 Experiential and didactic Faculty and staff Increase No evidence of effect   No evidence of effect  
Shipley, 2003 Students (volunteers and non-volunteers) Increase in general Increase Small non-statistically significant effect No evidence of effect  
Volunteer student Greater increase related to control Greater increase in relation to control and non-voluntary Small non-statistically significant difference between v and nv compared with students who did not receive training Slight difference, not statistically significant between v and nv compared to control  
Harrod et al., 2014 Pasco et al., 2012 Experiential and didactic Peer counselors   Moderate increase Increase   
Harrod et al., 2014 Tompkins & Witt, 2009 Does not inform Peer counselors      
Yonemoto et al., 2019    Increase   Increase
Kutcher et al., 2017 Mellanby et al., 2010 Students      Moderate increase
Wolitzky-Taylor et al., 2019 All   Increase   Increase