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Table 6 Factor loadings, means and standard deviations, asymmetries, kurtosis and commonalities of EEAPREJ items

From: Self-handicapping strategies in educational context: construction and validation of the Brazilian Self-Handicapping Strategies Scale (EEAPREJ)

Item F M SD As Ku h2
1. Some students study only the day before the test. If they do not get a good grade, they say they did not have enough time to study the whole material. 0.51 1.95 0.84 0.68 − 0.07 0.55
2. Some students do not study hard and when they do not get a good grade, they say it is not possible because it is a heavy course load. 0.54 1.55 0.73 1.25 1.12 0.61
3. Some students use their cell phones during the class. If they do not get a good grade, they say it was because they did not understand the teacher’s explanation. 0.65 1.41 0.72 1.82 2.82 0.84
4. Some students leave the classroom frequently. If they get a bad grade on the test, they say it was because they missed important content. 0.69 1.33 0.67 2.18 4.31 0.78
5. Some students go out even when they have an important assignment. If they get a bad grade, they say they had little time to do it. 0.75 1.37 0.70 1.96 3.28 0.75
6. Some students intentionally engage in too many activities. If they do not do well in the course, they say they were too busy with other things. 0.63 1.57 0.81 1.35 1.07 0.66
7. Some students go to parties even when they have an important assignment. If they get a bad grade, they say the proposed assignment was too complex. 0.77 1.23 0.59 2.91 8.64 0.76
8. Some students talk to classmates during the class. If they do not do well in the course, they say that their friends distracted them. 0.68 1.35 0.67 2.08 4.17 0.75
9. Some students postpone studying and doing academic assignments, and often fail to do them. If they do not do well in the course, they say it was due to lack of time. 0.74 1.62 0.83 1.21 0.65 0.77
10. Some students do not read the texts recommended by the professors before the class. If they get a bad grade, they say it was because the texts were too boring. 0.67 1.77 0.83 0.88 − 0.03 0.57
11. Some students do other things (watch television, listen to music or use the internet) knowing they have little time to do an assignment. If they do not get a good grade, they say the assignment was too long. 0.74 1.67 0.86 1.01 0.15 0.72
12. Some students report they have to stay with friends and/or boyfriend/girlfriend. If their assignment is not good, they say they had no time to dedicate to studying. 0.73 1.42 0.73 1.73 2.36 0.81
13. Some students do not prepare for a test and then feel very anxious. If they get a bad grade, they blame anxiety. 0.58 1.69 0.85 1.07 0.35 0.54
14. Some students study the wrong content for the test. If they get a bad grade, they say that is the reason. 0.54 1.31 0.64 2.26 5.00 0.69
15. Some students postpone some important tasks until the deadline set by the professor. If they get a bad grade, they say the assignment was done in the last minute. 0.68 1.85 0.94 0.83 − 0.33 0.92
16. Some students do not organize their time very well, so they need to stay awake for several nights in a row to do an important assignment. If they get a bad grade, they say they were too sleepy. 0.69 1.69 0.91 1.13 0.20 0.69
17. Some students are focused on non-essential details of an important activity and do not dedicate to its content. If the grade is not what they expected, they say they had no time to do a good assignment. 0.64 1.59 0.81 1.23 0.70 0.69
18. Some students do not dedicate enough time to an important assignment. If the result is not good, they say they were not engaged. 0.60 1.84 0.92 0.79 − 0.40 0.61
19. Some students read entertainment magazines during classes. If they get a bad grade, they say it was because they did not understand the subject. 0.73 1.17 0.53 3.64 13.94 0.93
Mean (standard deviation) 29.45 (8.75)
  1. (F factor, M mean, SD standard deviation, As asymmetries, Kur kurtosis, h2 communalities)
  2. EEAPREJ is an original instrument developed by Boruchovitch and Ganda in the Brazilian context and in Portuguese language. The items were translated into English for the present publication. Researchers interested in the instrument need to contact authors for proper authorization