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Table 1 Studies with evidence of self-handicapping scale validity

From: Self-handicapping strategies in educational context: construction and validation of the Brazilian Self-Handicapping Strategies Scale (EEAPREJ)

  Authors (year) Sample Method Results
Self-Handicapping Scale (SHS)
Jones and Rhodewalt (1982)
Rhodewalt et al. (1984) 27 university students
32 athletes
Internal consistency (Cronbach’s α)
Test-retest reliability
α = 0.78
r = 0.74
Strube (1986) 168 university students Cronbach’s α
Extraction of principal components (PCA)
α = 0.62
6 one-dimensional factors
10 items
Akın (2012) 585 university students Cronbach’s α
Test-retest
EFA
AFC
0.90
0.94
1 factor
Good fit
Clarke and MacCann (2016) 484 university students Parallel analysis
EFA (MLE)
CFA
2 factors (internal and external)
Acceptable fit for 13 items
Akar et al. (2018). Version: Akın (2012) 350 university students Cronbach’s α
CFA
0.97
Acceptable fit for 25 items
Barutçu Yıldırım and Demir (2019)
Version: Akın (2012)
801 university students Cronbach’s α 0.74
Jensen and Deemer (2020) 946 university students Cronbach’s α
(2 factors )
Internal 0.76
External 0.72
Şahin and Çoban (2020)
Version: Akın (2012)
981 university students Cronbach’s α
CFA
0.60
Good fit for 1 factor
Karami et al. (2020) 360 university students Cronbach’s α 0.80