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Table 1 Detailed results: Studies included in this systematic review

From: Cross-cultural adaptation of body image assessment instruments for university students: a systematic review

  Author
Year
Location
Objective (To assess the cross-cultural adaptation of the…) Methodological guide Population Type of validity Type of reliability Reported limitations Reported strengths Main results Quality (Value / %)
01 Barra et al. (2019)
Brazil
SATAQ-4 to the Portuguese Language and Brazilian students Beaton, Bombardier, Guillemin, and Ferraz (2007) 1051 YUS—BS
18–30 years old
CFA
FV / CV CTTV / DV / CVV
IC Dificulty in the generalization of results. V and R of the SATAQ-4 λ = 0.729–0.976; χ2/gl = 8.39; CFI = 0.98; TLI = 0.98; RMSEA = 0.08; r = 0.063–0.590; α = 0.84–0.95. 40 / 95.2
02 Shoji, Mehling, Hautzinger, and Herbert (2018)
Japan
MAIA to the Japanese population Beaton et al. (2000) 390 YUS—BS
mean age of 20.3 years old
EFA
CV / CTTV / DV / DVV / CVV
IC Cultural differences affected
Differences in the sample
Reduction of 7 items in the scale
Difference in the factorial structure λ > 0.40; α = 0.67–0.87 33/78.5
03 Chakroun-Baggioni, Corman, Spada, Caselli, and Gierski (2017)
France
DTQ to a sample of university students Brislin, 1986 436 YUS—BS
mean age of 19.1 years old
CFA
PV
IC / TRT Measures SR
Cross-sectional model (makes it difficult to draw conclusion of causality)
Study related with different measures λ > 0.50; SB scaled χ2 (34)= 150.60, p <0.001, SB scaled χ2 /df=4.43; RMSEA=0.09 (90% IC: 0.07–0.10); CFI=0.94.
ICC= 0.71; 95% CI = 0.50–0.83
Omega coefficients= 0.84–0.90
37 / 88.0
04 Bas et al. (2017)
Turkey
IES-2 to the Turkish language Brislin (1986)
Bracken and Barona (1991)
377 YUS—BS
19–31 years old
EFA
CVV / DV / CTTV
IC/ TRT SH
CS
Results cannot be compared to other groups
Good V and R
R same as the original study
EQ between scales
λ =0.69–0.96, KMO =0.87, χ2 = 9043.49 (p < 0.001), α = 0.82. 37 / 88.0
05 Ulian et al. (2017)
Brazil
FCQ-S and FCQ-T to the Portuguese language. Reichenheim and Moraes (2007) 22 YUS—W
20–24 years
CV IC SH
Inaccuracy of the original translation
Excellent verbal comprehension
Advances in research
α = 0.5–0.8 32 / 76.1
06 Carbonneau et al. (2016)
Canada
IES-2 to Canada Beaton et al. (2000) 334 W and 75 M
18–65 years old
CFA
CTTV / DV
IC / TRT Sample specificity
SH
SH
Wide age range
λ =0.51 – 0.93, χ2 (df = 222, n = 239) = 479.97, p < 0.001; NNFI = 0.911; CFI = 0.922; RMSEA = 0.070; 90% CI of the RMSEA = 0.061–0.078. r = 0.64 to 0.90, α >0.70. 38 / 90.4
07 Silva, Costa, Pimenta, Maroco, and Campos (2016)
Brazil
BSQ to use in Brazil and Portugal in female university students It is unclear 278—Portugal
248—Brazil
YUS averagely 18 years old
CFA
CVV / CCV
IC It is unclear It is unclear λ =0.34-0.87, χ2 /df 2.65–5.63, CFA and CFI = 0.81–0.95, NFI=0.78–0.93, RMSEA=0.07–0.09, α=0.88–0.97. 32 / 76.1
08 Rousseau, Denieul, Lentillon, and Valls (2014)
France
MBDS to France Guillemin, Bombardier, and Beaton (1993) 319 M
YUS
15–23 years old
EFA and CFA
CCV
IC / TRT It is unclear MBDS could be a useful instrument in identifying and detecting problems linked to body image in men λ >0.40, χ2 [300] = 3381.13, p < 0.001, KM0 = 0.90, Chi2/df = 3.20; AGFI = 0.82; GFI = 0.86; RMSEA = 0.08, α=0.82–0.88. 33 / 78.5
09 Pakpour, Zeidi, Ziaeiha, and Burri (2014)
Switzerland
FGSIS-I – Iran Version - in a sample of college women Guillemin, Bombardier, and Beaton (1993); Beaton et al (2000) 1877 W YUS
19–29 years old
EFA and CFA
CVV/ CTTV / FV / CV / DV
IC/ TRT Cross-sectional project
SR
Non-confidential data
CS / SH
Instrument highly V e R λ = 0.45–0.83
KMO =0.78 and a χ2 = 3649.05, df= 21, p < 0.001.
χ2= 153.93, df= 14, p = 0.00004, GFI=0.86, NFI = 0.84, CFI = 0.85, and RMSEA = 0.191; α=0.79–0.86.
30 / 71.4
10 Campana, Tavares, Swami, and da Silva (2013)
Brazil
DMS, SMAQ and MBIDS to Brazilian Portuguese Beaton, Bombardier, Guillemin, and Ferraz (2002) 878 YUS—M 18–39 years old CFA
CTTV / DV / CV
IC The scales were validated for a specific group of Brazilian men, instead of a larger and more heterogeneous group (e.g., adolescents and older adults) Useful tools for investigations in body image
Decrease of cultural barriers
λ >0.30,
DMS Factor Structure = χ2 = 239.28, p < .001; RMSEA = .067, GFI = .992, AGFI = .986, NFI = .987, CFI = .992, NNFI = .989, χ2/gl = 4.98), α =0.86–0.87.
SMAQ Factor Structure = χ2 = 266.62, p < .001; RMSEA = .050, GFI = .993, AGFI = .990, NFI = .990, CH = .996, NNFI = .995, χ2/df = 3.17, α =0.64–0.90.
MBIDS Factor Structure = χ2 = 27.51, p < .001; RMSEA = .053, GFI = .998, AGFI = .995, NH = .996, CFI = .999, NNFI = .999, χ2/df = 3.43, α =0.84.
38 / 90.4
11 de Carvalho et al. (2013)
Brazil
MBDS to male students in Brazil Herdman, Fox-Rushby, and Badia (1998) 59 YUS—BS
mean age of 23.5 years old
CV IC Needs psychometric analysis of validity and reliability Advances in research α = 0.92 21 / 50.0
12 Conti et al. (2012)
Brazil
BCI to the Portuguese language Reichenheim and Moraes (2007) 47 YUS—BS
mean age of: 22.7 years old
CV It is unclear Absence of V and R Easy verbal comprehension It is unclear 28 / 66.6
13 Amaral, Cordás, Conti, and Ferreira (2011)
Brazil
SATAQ-3 to the Brazilian Portuguese language. Guillemin, Bombardier, Beaton (1993) 146 YUS—70 M (mean age of 20.7) and 76 W (mean age of 20.3). CV IC The article described only the initial cross-cultural adaptation process of the SATAQ-3. Absence of the V and R. Items with easy comprehension.
Items were not excluded
IC similar to the original study
α = 0.74–0.92 34 / 80.9
14 Conti, Scagliusi, Queiroz, Hearst, and Cordás (2010)
Brazil
TIS to the Portuguese language Pasquali (2000)
Herdman et al. (1998)
108 YUS—51 M (mean age of 18 ) 57 W (mean age of 19) CV IC It is unclear Items with easy comprehension.
Satisfactory scores in the V
α > 0.80 21 / 50.0
  1. Source: Articles included in this systematic review
  2. Abbreviations: AGFI Adjusted goodness-of-fit index, BCI Body Change Inventory, BS both sexes, BSQ Body Shape Questionnaire, CCV concurrent validity, CFA confirmatory analysis, CFI Comparative Fit Index, CS convenience sampling, CTTV construct validity, CV content validity, CVV convergent validity, PV predictive validity, DMS Drive for Muscularity Scale, DTQ Desire Thinking Questionnaire, DV discriminant validity, DVV divergent validity, FCQ-S State Food Cravings Questionnaires, FCQ-T Trait Food Cravings Questionnaires, FGSIS-I Female Genital Self-Image Scale, FV face validity, GFI Goodness-of-Fit Index, IC internal consistency, ICC intraclass correlation coefficient, IES-2 Intuitive Eating Scale 2, KMO Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin index, M men, MAIA Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness, MBDS Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale, MBIDS Male Body Ideal Distress Scale, NFI Normed Fit Index, NNFI Non-normed fit index, R Reliability, RMSEA Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, SATAQ-3 Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3, SATAQ-4 Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale-4, SH sample homogeneity, SMAQ Swansea Muscularity Attitudes Questionnaire, TIS Tripartide Influence Scale, TRT test-retest, V validity, W women, YUS young university students, α Cronbach’s alpha, λ factor loading, χ2 Bartlett’s test of sphericity, χ2/gl chi-square test