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Table 5 ESPECTA-VN and empathy scales before and after the intervention by experimental condition

From: Efficacy of a bystander intervention for preventing dating violence in Brazilian adolescents: short-term evaluation

  Experimental group (n = 14) Control group (n = 19) p value*
Pre-test (M (SD)) Post-test (M (SD)) Pre-test (M (SD)) Post-test (M (SD))
Bystander attitudes
 Awareness 3.02 (0.63) 3.19 (0.55) 3.28 (0.77) 3.45 (0.90) 0.473
 Definition 3.31 (0.82) 3.38 (0.68) 3.07 (1.06) 3.37 (1.06) 0.428
 Responsibility failure 3.50 (0.60) 3.68 (0.56) 3.42 (0.74) 3.48 (0.87) 0.477
 Plan/self-efficacy 3.40 (0.96) 2.90 (0.74) 2.86 (1.03) 2.77 (0.94) 0.350
 Action to intervene 3.87 (0.58) 3.52 (0.70) 3.45 (1.16) 3.42 (1.13) 0.326
Empathy
 Empathetic consideration 3.49 (0.75) 3.57 (0.64) 3.79 (0.74) 3.78 (0.86) 0.597
 Assuming the other’s perspective 3.21 (0.80) 3.53 (0.56) 3.34 (0.50) 3.51 (0.57) 0.688
 Personal distress 3.18 (0.72) 3.27 (0.49) 3.14 (0.53) 3.04 (0.85) 0.361
  1. *Kruskal-Wallis test, pre- and post-test difference