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Table 4 ESPECTA-VN and empathy scale results before and after intervention for experimental group (n = 14)

From: Efficacy of a bystander intervention for preventing dating violence in Brazilian adolescents: short-term evaluation

  Pre-test (M (SD)) Post-test (M (SD)) p value* Effect size
Bystander attitudes
 Awareness: failure to notice 3.02 (0.63) 3.19 (0.55) 0.368 0.26
 Definition: failure to identify the risk 3.31 (0.82) 3.38 (0.68) 0.673 − 0.09
 Responsibility: failure to assume responsibility 3.50 (0.60) 3.68 (0.56) 0.209 0.31
 Plan/self-efficacy: failure due to lack of abilities 3.40 (0.96) 2.90 (0.74) 0.102 − 0.47
 Action to intervene: failure due to audience inhibition effect 3.87 (0.58) 3.52 (0.70) 0.169 − 0.45
Empathy
 Empathetic consideration 3.49 (0.75) 3.57 (0.64) 0.484 − 0.16
 Assuming the other’s perspective 3.21 (0.80) 3.53 (0.56) 0.116 0.46
 Personal distress 3.18 (0.72) 3.27 (0.49) 0.637 − 0.19
  1. *Wilcoxon’s signed-rank test for paired sample