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Table 2 Demographic characteristics, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and patterns of drug use among crack cocaine users in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, prior to treatment intervention

From: Contingency management is effective in promoting abstinence and retention in treatment among crack cocaine users with a previous history of poor treatment response: a crossover trial

Variable Prior to UC intervention (n = 16) Prior to CM intervention (n = 16) p value1
n (%) Mean ± SD n (%) Mean ± SD
Age (years)   37.3 ± 8.4   37.9 ± 8.7 0.838
Male 14 (87.5)   14 (87.5)   1.000
Education (years of schooling)   10.1 ± 3.3   9.3 ± 3.3 0.590
Unemployment 11 (68.8)   13 (81.2)   0.500
Homelessness 3 (18.8)   4 (25.0)   1.000
Age at onset of crack use (years)   24.7 ± 8.4   23.9 ± 8.6 0.777
Duration of crack use (years)   12.6 ± 7.8   14 ± 6.8 0.542
Has slept on the streets due to crack use 6 (37.5)   8 (50.0)   0.250
Has been to Crackland* 14 (87.5)   12 (75.5)   0.500
History of inpatient treatment 14 (87.5)   14 (87.5)   1.000
Number of previous treatment attempts   4.6 ± 5.4   4.8 ± 4.1 0.918
Positive crack cocaine urine sample at baseline 9 (56.3)   6 (37.5)   0.727
Alcohol dependence 9 (56.3)   9 (56.3)   1.000
Multiple substance dependence 12 (75.0)   12 (75.0)   1.000
Psychotic symptoms, n (%) 10 (62.5)   10 (62.5)   1.000
Beck Depression Inventory-II score   23.8 ± 12.6   20.3 ± 12.1 0.493
Beck Anxiety Inventory score   21.0 ± 14.0   23.1 ± 11.9 0.694
  1. UC usual care, CM contingency management, SD standard deviation
  2. *Crackland is a region of downtown São Paulo where thousands of people consume crack openly
  3. 1p values were obtained using paired t test for continuous variables and the McNemar exact test for dichotomous variables