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Table 3 Comparison of infant and maternal interactive behaviors in the three groups: control, chronic anxiety and depression

From: Mother-child interaction: implications of chronic maternal anxiety and depression

Interactive behaviors Mental health p value C versus A versus D
Control (n = 22) Anxiety (n = 10) Depression (n = 8)
Med (Min–Max) Med (Min–Max) Med (Min–Max)
Maternal sensitivity 22.8 (14.7–28.9) 20.1 (12.0–25.6) 14.6 (9.1–19.7) 0.004* C > D
Maternal cognitive stimulation 14.8 (9.6–29.6) 16.4 (8.7–22.0) 10.2 (7.3–17.4) 0.010* C, A > D
Maternal positive affect 18.4 (9.6–22.6) 17.3 (11.0–19.8) 14.8 (10.0–16.0) 0.014* C > D
Maternal negative affect 7.0 (7.0–9.6) 7.2 (7.0–9.8) 8.9 (7.0–11.4) 0.014* C, A < D
Maternal disengagement 7.6 (7.0–20.8) 8.5 (7.0–15.8) 13.8 (9.5–27.8) 0.005* C < D
Maternal intrusiveness 7.8 (7.0–20.0) 10.9 (7.0–13.2) 13.4 (7.8–18.0) 0.003* C < A, D
Infant involvement 20,8 (15,8 – 26,5) 20.1 (10.9–7.0) 17.5 (12.5–22.0) 0.063  
Infant interaction 13.2 (9.0–23.0) 13.0 (8.6–22.0) 10.2 (7.4–14.2) 0.025* C, A > D
Infant positive affect 9.3 (7.5–12.8) 9.3 (7.8–15.0) 8.5 (7.0–11.8) 0.392  
Infant negative affect 7.2 (7.0–13.0) 7.5 (7.0–10.0) 7.5 (7.0–8.8) 0.731  
  1. Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Dunn test for multiple comparisons; *p < 0.05
  2. C control, A anxious, D depressive