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Table 3 Primary and secondary outcome measures in the first phase of the protocol

From: Behavioral intervention for sleep problems in childhood: a Brazilian randomized controlled trial

  Pre-treatment Post-treatment Follow-up 1 month Follow-up 6 month Group (control and intervention)* Time (pre- and post-intervention and follow-up)
Control Intervention Control Intervention Control Intervention Intervention
  Mean (SD) N = 31 Mean (SD) N = 31 Mean (SD) N = 31 Mean (SD) N = 31 Mean (SD) N = 31 Mean (SD) N = 31 Mean (SD) N = 31 F P Cohen’s d (post)
Sleep questionnaires
 CSDS 10.1 (1.6) 9.8 (2.0) 9.9 (2.3) 2.2 (2.2) 10 (2.3) 2.2 (2.3) 2.1 (2.4) 103.64 .000 3.83 (2.96–4.71)
Sleep diary
 Sleep latency (min) 58.9 (32.4) 40.8 (27.0) 59.8 (31.3) 18.5 (14.2) 59.7 (34.5) 18.2 (13.4) 17.3 (10.4) 9.25 .000 1.53 (0.94–2.12)
 Number of night wakings 2.7 (1.7) 2.2 (1.2) 2.7 (1.5) 0.1 (0.3) 2.4 (1.6) 0.1 (0.2) 0.1 (0.2) 32.15 .000 0.64 (0.11–1.17)
 Total sleep time (h) 9.2 (1.3) 9.8 (1.0) 9.3 (1.1) 10.3 (1.2) 9.3 (1.3) 10.1 (1.2) 10.2 (1.2) 1.32 .274 0.91 (0.37–1.46)
Daytime functioning questionnaires
 Total Problem CBCL 62.3 (10.2) 62.7 (9.5) 61.8 (10.9) 52.6 (8.7) 62.8 (11) 52 (8.9) 50.5 (9.6) 22.71 .000 0.59 (0.06–1.12)
 Internalizing Problems CBCL 57.7 (10.4) 59.4 (10) 57.7 (10.8) 51 (10.1) 58.9 (10.8) 49.8 (10.7) 49.4 (10.5) 20.86 .000 0.37 (−0.14–0.89)
 Externalizing Problems CBCL 60.1 (11.3) 59.7 (10) 59.6 (11.6) 52.8 (8.3) 60.5 (11.8) 52.6 (8.8) 50.5 (9.2) 10.17 .000 0.29 (−0.22–0.81)
  Mean (SD) N = 7 Mean (SD) N = 13 Mean (SD) N = 7 Mean (SD) N = 13 Mean (SD) N = 7 Mean (SD) N = 13 Mean (SD) N = 13 F P Cohen’s d (post)
Actigraphy
 Sleep latency (min) 3.0 (1.4) 3.5 (1.2) 4.9 (2.2) 2.2 (0.8) 3.1 (1.8) 2.4 (1.6) 3.3 (1.7) 10.68 .001 2.30 (1.04–3.57)
 Sleep efficiency (%) 83.6 (5.3) 86.4 (3.9) 85.6 (3.6) 86.8 (4.8) 84.6 (5,0) 87.6 (4.8) 90.9 (2.8) 0.51  
 Wake after sleep onset (min) 84.8 (30.4) 74.3 (25.6) 69.0 (23.0) 69.9 (27.5) 71.9 (23.9) 66.1 (27.5) 46.2 (16.8) 0.82  
 Total sleep time (min) 454.6 (59.6) 514.1(25.8) 462.1 (49.2) 492.1 (50.3) 436.3 (55.2) 504.2 (43.1) 523.4 (33.9) 0.52  
  1. CSDS Composite Sleep Disturbance Score, CBCL Child Behavior Checklist
  2. *=versus