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Table 1 Results of the intervention on social skills, depression, anxiety, stress, and quality of life

From: Social skills training for drug users under treatment: a pilot study with follow-up

Variables T1
Mean (SD)
T2
Mean (SD)
T3
Mean (SD)
N Test statistic p d
(T1 vs T3)
Making refusals1 13.444a
(4.447)
10.000b
(5.000)
13.777a
(3.800)
9 χ 2 Friedman (2)
6.353
0.042* 0.080
Expressing Negative Affect1 19.333b
(4.000)
20.777b
(6.418)
22.444a
(4.693)
9 χ 2 Friedman (2)
2.294
0.032* 0.71
Starting and keeping a conversation1 25.111a
(7.321)
27.222a
(8.318)
28.222a
(9.175)
  χ 2 Friedman (2)
0.667
0.717 NA
Acknowledging compliments2 6.888a
(1.536)
7.444a
(2.603)
7.333a
(2.449)
  F(2;16) = 0.161 0.852 NA
Speaking in public1 6.777a
(3.800)
6.555a
(4.333)
8.888a
(3.822)
  χ 2 Friedman (2)
2.552
0.279 NA
Expressing Positive Affect1 26.555a
6.857
26.444a
9.056
26.444a
5.918
  χ 2 Friedman (2)
1.235
0.539 NA
Expressing disagreement2 14.333a
(4.924)
15.777a
(4.994)
15.666a
(5.220)
  F(2;16) = 0.679 0.521 NA
Defending rights1 14.111a
(5.085)
15.666a
(6.224)
17.555a
(6.424)
  χ 2 Friedman (2)
3.486
0.175 NA
Depression symptoms1 5.222a
(4.116)
3.444b
(3.643)
2.000a
(4.242)
9 χ 2 Friedman (2)
1.697
0.028* 0.770
Anxiety Symptoms1 3.555a
(2.743)
3.222a
(2.990)
1.777a
(1.715)
9 χ 2 Friedman (2)
5.154
0.076 NA
Stress symptoms1 5.555a
(3.711)
3.666a
(2.449)
2.666a
(3.082)
9 χ 2 Friedman (2)
3.563
0.168 NA
Quality of life
(psychological)2
3.274a
(0.646)
4.015b
(0.652)
4.255b
(0.251)
9 F(2;16) = 14.202 0.001** 2.189
Quality of life
(environment)1
78.388a
(6.913)
74.222b
(2.181)
75.555b
(5.433)
9 χ2 Friedman (2) 5.886 0.043* − 0.458
Quality of life
(physical)2
3.760a
(0.753)
3.950a
(0.927)
4.122a
(0.793)
9 F(2;16) = 1.307 0.298 NA
Quality of life
(social)2
3.106a
(0.833)
3.588a
(0.722)
3.848a
(0.853)
9 F(2;16) = 2.283 0.134 NA
  1. a/b: notation used in multiple comparisons to identify which means differ significantly, where means followed by the same letters (on the line) do not differ in a significance of 5%
  2. NA not applicable
  3. *p at the level of 0.05 **p at the level of 0.05
  4. 1Variables analyzed by the Friedman test
  5. 2Analysis of variance F-Snedecor