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Table 2 Comparisons between the groups regarding social vulnerability, maternal depression, and chronic adversities (n = 85)

From: Behavioral problems of school children: impact of social vulnerability, chronic adversity, and maternal depression

Groups G1 (n = 18) G2 (n = 39) G3 (n = 28) Test value p value*
Social vulnerability f (%) f (%) f (%)
Maternal education
 Up to 8 years 05 (28) 16 (41) 01 (04) 11.961 0.003
 More than 8 years 13 (72) 23 (59) 27 (96)
Paternal education
 Up to 8 years 10 (56) 20 (51) 11 (39) 1.429 0.489
 More than 8 years 08 (44) 19 (49) 17 (61)
Marital status
 Single-parent family 11 (61) 32 (82) 23 (82) 3.589 0.165
 Two-parent family 07 (39) 07 (18) 05 (18)
Socioeconomic class
 C, D, and E 06 (33) 13 (33) 09 (32) 0.012 0.994
 A and B 12 (67) 26 (67) 19 (68)
Family income
 Up to 3 minimum wages 13 (72) 24 (62) 10 (36) 7.044 0.030
 More than 3 min. wages 05 (28) 15 (38) 18 (64)
Government benefit
 Present 04 (22) 12 (31) 02 (07) 5.465 0.065
 Absent 14 (78) 27 (69) 26 (93)
Maternal depression
 Presence 11 (61) 15 (38) 00 (00) 21.376 < 0.001
 Absence 07 (39) 24 (62) 28 (100)
Chronic adversities M (SD)/Med M (SD)/Med M (SD)/Med Test value p value**
  1.50 (0.92) 1.95 (1.61) 1.04 (1.17) 6.651 0.036
2.00 2.00 1.00
  1. Note. G1 = children with behavioral difficulties according to mothers and teachers; G2 = children with behavioral difficulties according to mothers or teachers; G3 = children without behavioral difficulties according to mothers and teachers
  2. f frequency, % percentage, M mean, SD standard deviation, Med median
  3. *p value for the chi-square test
  4. **p value for the Kruskal-Wallis test/p ≤ 0.05