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Table 5 Descriptive statistics and inter-correlations between dimensions of AL (r 2 in parenthesis), univariate tests, and effect size (η 2) for the Brazilian and Portuguese samples

From: Authentic Leadership Questionnaire: invariance between samples of Brazilian and Portuguese employees

Dimension of authentic leadership Nationality   
Brazil (n = 1019) Portugal (n = 842) F(1, 1859) η 2
M SD 1 2 3 M SD 1 2 3   
Transparency (1) 2.6 .84     2.7 .75     0.59 .000
Moral/ethics (2) 2.1 .74 .781* (.61)    2.1 .63 .664* (.44)    6.90* .004
Balanced processing (3) 2.5 .99 .750* (.56) .770* (.59)   2.5 .86 .631* (.40) .649* (.42)   0.05 .000
Self-awareness (4) 2.3 1.05 .759* (.58) .758* (.57) .859* (.74) 2.6 .80 .647* (.42) .623* (.39) .690* (.48) 47.77** .025
  1. *p < .01; **p < .001