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Table 3 Behavioral problems depending on area of impairment and size of gap

From: Behavior problems and social competence in Brazilian children with specific language impairment

Test Gap a Behavioral Problems Statistics (χ 2) b
Normal “At risk of”
Expressive Vocabulary Moderate 8 (67 %) 3 (25 %) 4.196*
Severe 4 (33 %) 9 (75 %)
Nonword Repetition Moderate 3 (25 %) 3 (25 %) .000
Severe 9 (75 %) 9 (75 %)
CTOPP Moderate 3 (25 %) 1 (8 %) 1.200
Severe 9 (75 %) 11 (92 %)
MLU Moderate 7 (58 %) 2 (18 %) 3.884*
Severe 5 (42 %) 9 (82 %)
Pragmatics Moderate 2 (22 %) 1 (8 %) .810
Severe 7 (78 %) 11 (92 %)
  1. * Statistical significance at p < .05
  2. a The gap was defined by the following criteria: for the Expressive Vocabulary, Nonword Repetition, MLU and Pragmatic tests, severe was equivalent to ≤ 2 year-gap and moderate to > 2 year-gap. For the CTOPP, severe was equivalent to < School Grade 1 and moderate to ≥ School Grade 1
  3. b One Sample Chi-square Tests (df = 1)