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Table 5 Study 3 path coefficient estimates (and p values) among moral orientations and touch variables

From: The importance of early life touch for psychosocial and moral development

  b1 b2 b3 b4 Indirect effect c′
Social engagement Moral capacity: empathy
 Positive touch .46 (< .001) − .15 (< .001) − .04 (.03) .52 (< .001) .002 (.03) .06 (.01)
 Lack of corporal punishment .28 (< .001) − .16 (< .001) − .04 (.02) .51 (< .001) .001 (.06) .07 (.002)
  Moral capacity: perspective-taking
 Positive touch .46 (< .001) − .15 (< .001) − .05 (.002) .29 (< .001) .001 (.01) .08 (.001)
 Lack of corporal punishment .28 (< .001) − .16 (< .001) − .05 (.003) .28 (< .001) .001 (.03) .11 (< .001)
Social opposition Moral capacity: empathy
 Positive touch .46 (< .001) − .15 (< .001) − .04 (.03) − .36 (< .001) − .001 (.03) − .08 (.02)
 Lack of corporal punishment .28 (< .001) − .16 (< .001) − .04 (.02) − .36 (< .001) − .001 (.07) .05 (.21)
  Moral capacity: perspective-taking
 Positive touch .46 (< .001) − .15 (< .001) − .05 (.002) − .24 (< .001) − .001 (.03) -.10 (.01)
 Lack of corporal punishment .28 (< .001) − .16 (< .001) − .05 (.003) − .24 (<.001) − .001 (.06) − .07 (.06)
Social withdrawal Moral capacity: personal distress
 Positive touch .46 (< .001) − .15 (< .001) .18 (< .001) .34 (< .001) − .01 (.001) − .07 (.03)
 Lack of corporal punishment .28 (< .001) − .16 (< .001) .18 (< .001) .34 (< .001) − .003 (.01) − .07 (.13)
  1. For the indirect effects, the p values are from Sobel tests. All 95% bias corrected bootstrap confidence intervals indicated that indirect effects included here were significant