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Table 3 Study 2 partial correlations among maternal anti-punishment attitudes, touch behavior, and child sociomoral outcomes

From: The importance of early life touch for psychosocial and moral development

Child outcomes by age Anti-punishment attitudes Positive touch Lack of negative touch
6 months 18-months 30-months 18-months 30-months
18-month behavioral regulation .02 (.75) .15 (.03) .07 (.33) .24 (< .001) .19 (.01)
18-month social engagement .23 (.001) .10 (.14) .09 (.22) .10 (.15) .20 (.004)
18-month cooperation .02 (.82) -.03 (.71) .04 (.61) .08 (.27) .17 (.02)
30-month behavioral regulation .08 (.27) .11 (.13) .07 (.31) .02 (.77) .30 (< .001)
30-month social engagement .13 (.07) .06 (.44) .24 (.001) .04 (.57) .22 (.002)
30-month cooperation .04 (.62) − .01 (.86) .09 (.23) − .03 (.69) .28 (< .001)
24-month externalizing − .20 (.002) − .04 (.56) .01 (.92) − .14 (.04) − .19 (.01)
24-month internalizing − .15 (.03) .03 (.61) .03 (.72) − .02 (.80) − .07 (.33)
24-month competence .18 (.01) .14 (.04) .11 (.14) .09 (.20) .17 (.02)
36-month externalizing − .11 (.12) − .03 (.67) − .16 (.02) − .14 (.04) − .14 (.04)
36-month internalizing − .11 (.13) .04 (.57) − .09 (.21) − .12 (.08) − .07 (.36)
36-month competence .13 (.07) .22 (.002) .11 (.13) .15 (.04) .15 (.04)
  1. Correlations control for responsivity, income-to-needs ratio, maternal age, and education. High scores on anti-punishment attitudes indicate rejection of corporal punishment
  2. Significant values are set in italics. P-values are in parentheses