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Table 2 Study 2 descriptive statistics for punishment attitudes, touch behaviors, and child outcomes

From: The importance of early life touch for psychosocial and moral development

Variable N Range M SD
Maternal variables
6-month anti-punishment attitudes 425 8–40 31.05 5.96
4-month positive touch behavior 466 0–2 1.82 .41
8-month positive touch behavior 406 0–2 1.66 .55
18-month positive touch behavior 391 0–2 1.43 .68
30-month positive touch behavior 359 0–2 1.27 .75
4-month lack of punishment behavior 466 0–3 2.77 .50
8-month lack of punishment behavior 406 0–3 2.53 .70
18-month lack of punishment behavior 390 0–3 2.19 .87
30-month lack of punishment behavior 359 0–3 2.25 .85
Child outcomes
18-month behavioral regulation 369 1–5 4.48 .65
30-month behavioral regulation 342 1–5 4.62 .62
18-month social engagement 368 1–5 3.62 1.02
30-month social engagement 341 1–5 3.63 1.23
18-month cooperation 363 1–5 4.11 .84
30-month cooperation 341 1–5 4.29 .86
24-month externalizing 415 0–2 .70 .32
36-month externalizing 363 0–2 .61 .31
24-month internalizing 412 0–2 .63 .23
36-month internalizing 360 0–2 .58 .25
24-month competence 406 0–2 1.32 .27
36-month competence 357 0–2 1.39 .30
  1. For punishment behavior, higher scores = less corporal punishment