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Table 1 Study 1 scales, means, and standard deviations (N = 156)

From: The importance of early life touch for psychosocial and moral development

  Scale M SD
Maternal touch attitudes
Positive touch 1–5 4.66 .51
Anti-punishment 1–5 4.58 .73
Child sociomoral outcomes
 Prosocial
  Social enjoyment 1–6 5.59 .60
  Social attunement 1–6 5.07 .74
  Social consideration 1–6 5.04 .70
  Social imagination 1–6 4.87 .83
  Empathy 1–7 5.29 .91
  Concern 1–7 4.85 1.16
  Inhibitory control 1–7 4.97 .87
  Thriving 1–5 4.38 .48
  Happiness 1–6 5.14 .59
 Antisocial    
  Social opposition 1–6 2.89 1.01
  Social distrust 1–6 3.04 .88
  Social withdrawal 1–6 2.57 .84
  Misbehavior 1–5 2.33 .63
 Psychopathology    
  Depression 1–6 2.58 .80
  Anxiety 1–5 1.64 .58