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Table 1 Demographic characteristics, comorbid psychiatric disorders, history of drug use, and treatment outcome among participants who crossed and did not crossover

From: Contingency management is effective in promoting abstinence and retention in treatment among crack cocaine users with a previous history of poor treatment response: a crossover trial

  Participants that crossed over to CMC (n = 16) Participants that did not crossover to CMC (n = 16) p value1
n (%) Mean ± SD n (%) Mean ± SD
Baseline variables
 Age (years)   37.3 ± 8.4   33.9 ± 8.4 0.337
 Male 14 (87.5)   14 (87.5)   1.000
 Education (years of schooling)   10.1 ± 3.3   10 ± 4.2 0.612
 Unemployment 11 (68.8)   16 (100)   0.043
 Homelessness 3 (18.8)   6 (37.5)   0.433
 Age at onset of crack use (years)   24.7 ± 8.4   23.2 ± 6.7 0.740
 Duration of crack use (years)   12.6 ± 7.8   10.8 ± 7.3 0.444
 Has slept on the streets due to crack use 6 (37.5)   12 (75.5)   0.073
 Has been to Crackland2 14 (87.5)   16 (100)   0.484
 History of inpatient treatment 14 (87.5)   12 (75.5)   1.000
 Number of previous treatment attempts   4.6 ± 5.4   3.1 ± 3.1 0.282
 Positive crack cocaine urine sample at baseline 9 (56.3)   7 (43.8)   0.654
 Alcohol dependence 9 (56.3)   12 (75.5)   0.458
 Multiple substance dependence 12 (75.0)   12 (75.0)   1.000
 Psychotic symptoms 10 (62.5)   5 (31.2)   0.156
 Beck Depression Inventory-II score   23.8 ± 12.6   19.9 ± 12.6 0.401
 Beck Anxiety Inventory score   21.0 ± 14.0   10.6 ± 9.4 0.022
Treatment outcome variables
 Treatment attendance (sessions)   5.3 ± 7.7   2.3 ± 3.8 0.182
 Retention in treatment (weeks)   3.9 ± 4.3   2.6 ± 3.7 0.489
 Proportion of negative samples submitted   12.2 ± 19.9   5.7 ± 10.8 0.265
 Longest duration of abstinence (weeks)   1.1 ± 2.2   0.5 ± 0.9 0.304
 Retained and abstinent at the last week of treatment 0 (0)   0 (0)   1.000
 3 or more weeks of abstinence 2 (12.5)   0 (0)   0.484
 Completely abstinent during treatment 0 (0)   0 (0)   1.000
  1. CMC contingency management condition, SD standard deviation
  2. 1p values were obtained using independent t test for continuous variables and Fisher’s exact test for dichotomous variables
  3. 2Crackland is a region of downtown São Paulo where thousands of people consume crack openly