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Table 3 Descriptive statistics and Cronbach’s α for emotion socialization strategies and maternal rearing practices (N = 418)

From: New version of the emotion socialization scale with the positive emotion of overjoy: initial validation evidence with Portuguese adolescents

  Min Max Range M SD Cronbach’s α
Emotion socialization strategies
 Reward
  Sadness 1 5 4 3.57 1.19 .89
  Anger 1 5 4 3.36 1.16 .87
  Fear 1 5 4 3.45 1.23 .89
  Overjoy 1 5 4 3.46 1.08 .83
 Punish
  Sadness 1 5 4 2.67 .90 .51
  Anger 1 5 4 2.59 .90 .57
  Fear 1 5 4 2.45 .89 .53
  Overjoy 1 5 4 1.69 .96 .80
 Neglect
  Sadness 1 5 4 2.70 1.14 .68
  Anger 1 5 4 2.96 1.09 .64
  Fear 1 5 4 2.97 1.19 .76
  Overjoy 1 5 4 2.81 1.04 .52
 Override
  Sadness 1 5 4 3.18 .99 .72
  Anger 1 5 4 2.90 .97 .68
  Fear 1 5 4 2.98 .98 .67
  Overjoy 1 5 4 2.15 1.02 .70
 Magnify
  Sadness 1 5 4 2.48 1.07 .84
  Anger 1 5 4 2.12 .97 .81
  Fear 1 5 4 1.91 .94 .83
  Overjoy 1 5 4 3.16 1.07 .80
Parenting practices
 Emotional warmth 1.15 4.00 2.85 3.26 .53 .90
 Overprotection 1.18 3.64 2.45 2.07 .49 .71
 Rejection 1.12 3.82 2.71 1.76 .48 .85