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Table 2 Sample description according to prevalence of depressive symptoms (n = 2402). FIBRA Unicamp, Elderly, 2008–2009

From: Frailty and depressive symptoms in older adults: data from the FIBRA study - UNICAMP

  Prevalence of depression p-value*
Sex
Female 359 (22.7 %) <0.001
Male 127 (15.4 %)  
Age (years)
 65–69 181 (19.8 %) =0.023
 70–74 132 (17.7 %)  
 75–79 114 (25.0 %)  
> = 80 59 (20.6 %)  
Schooling (years)
 0 142 (30.1 %) <0.001
 1–4 228 (19.3 %)  
 5–8 89 (20.5 %)  
> = 9 26 (8.4 %)  
Marital Status
Single 42 (21.0 %) =0.006
Married 216 (17.7 %)  
Divorced 32 (18.5 %)  
Widowed 194 (24.1 %)  
Family Income
<=1.0 MW 72 (31.3 %) <0.001
1.1–3.0 MW 229 (22.8 %)  
3.1–5.0 MW 71 (15.4 %)  
5.1–10.0 MW 41 (15.8 %)  
> 10.0 MW 9 (7.0 %)  
No. of disabilities
 0 15 (10.1 %) <0.001
 1–3 188 (15.7 %)  
> = 4 282 (26.8 %)  
No. of diseases
 0 39 (14.5 %) <0.001
 1–2 169 (14.2 %)  
> = 3 278 (29.5 %)  
Frailty profiles
Frail 76 (45.5 %) <0.001
Pre-frail 285 (23.7 %)  
Non-frail 125 (12.1 %)  
Criteria   
Weight loss
Frail 125 (29.5 %) <0.001
Non-frail 333 (17.8 %)  
Weak hand-grip strength
Frail 115 (28.6 %) <0.001
Non-frail 367 (18.5 %)  
Fatigue
Frail 189 (38.4 %) <0.001
Non-frail 287 (15.5 %)  
Slow gait
Frail 119 (29.2 %) <0.001
Non-frail 365 (18.4 %)  
Low level of physical activity
Frail 98 (23.4 %) =0.075
Non-frail 388 (19.6 %)