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Table 3 Generalized Partial Credit Model (GPCM) of items in the bully scale of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (QBO), assuming variable discriminating power across items

From: Construct validity and reliability of Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire – Brazilian version

Item Severity of response category Discrimination Reliabilityc
1 to 2a 2 to 3a
22 I forced someone to hit/offend another classmate 36.4 37.5 3.1 0.86
15 I followed someone inside or outside the school 36.2 37.1 2.45 0.86
3 I threatened someone 33.3 37 2.43 0.85
4 I forced somebody to give me their money or belongingsb 38 36.4 2.34 0.86
10 I humiliated somebody because of their sexual preference or mannerismb 37.5 37.3 2.24 0.86
13 I made nicknames for others that they didn’t like 31.2 35.7 2.24 0.86
8 I insulted someone because of their skin color or race 36.4 38.4 2.2 0.86
9 I insulted someone because of a physical characteristic 34.2 36.6 2.18 0.86
14 I cornered or pushed someone against a wallb 36.6 36.4 2.11 0.86
20 I said bad things about someone or their family 35.2 36.7 2.08 0.86
19 I falsely accused someone of taking the belongings of classmates 36 39.4 1.97 0.88
12 I laughed or pointed at someone 31.9 36.3 1.94 0.86
21 I tried to make people dislike someone 36.2 38.5 1.84 0.86
16 I sexually harassed someoneb 39.2 37.1 1.76 0.86
11 I made fun of someone because of their accent 35.8 37 1.66 0.86
2 I pulled someone’s hair or scratched them 34.1 38.3 1.58 0.86
17 I didn’t let someone join a group of classmates 34.9 37.1 1.57 0.86
1 I hit, kicked, or pushed someone 30.8 36.9 1.52 0.86
5 I snitched money or things from othersb 41.4 36.4 1.32 0.86
7 I yelled at someone 28.1 34.3 1.32 0.86
18 I completely ignored someone 34.2 37.6 1.12 0.86
23 I used the Internet or cell phone to harm/offend a classmateb 40.5 37.7 0.96 0.86
6 I damaged other people’s belongings 38 38.1 0.82 0.86
  1. aValues correspond to the intersection between response categories
  2. bItems with a high degree of intersection between categories 1 and 2
  3. cCronbach’s α coefficient excluding each item