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Table 1 Participants’ Performances (Mean and Standard Deviation) in IQ and Language, Memory and Executive Functions by Socioeconomic Status and Age Range

From: Influence of family socioeconomic status on IQ, language, memory and executive functions of Brazilian children

Tasks Groups
SES A B1 B2 C
Age range 6–7 8–9 10–12 6–7 8–9 10–12 6–7 8–9 10–12 6–7 8–9 10–12
IQ M 25.52 31.74 32.16 25.14 29.24 31.41 24.29 27.97 30.70 20.76 26.52 30.52
  SD 4.69 2.66 3.05 4.71 5.37 3.36 3.97 4.46 3.64 5.07 4.72 3.57
Semantic and episodic memory           
 Immediate recall M 4.70 5.08 5.50 4.50 4.57 5.59 4.54 5.45 5.60 4.00 4.84 5.19
SD 1.36 1.24 1.08 1.25 1.21 1.06 1.07 1.23 1.25 1.05 0.80 0.95
 Late recall M 3.03 3.95 3.98 3.28 3.17 4.07 3.43 4.45 4.28 2.19 3.12 3.87
SD 1.45 1.64 1.45 1.65 1.37 1.19 1.55 1.03 1.49 1.72 1.27 1.15
 Visuoverbal M 4.76 5.74 6.25 5.56 5.61 6.18 4.96 5.61 6.32 4.43 5.52 5.77
  SD 1.15 1.39 1.15 1.13 1.19 1.13 1.11 0.92 1.24 1.03 1.23 0.85
 Semantic M 3.73 3.90 3.94 3.67 3.74 3.98 3.32 3.94 3.98 3.33 3.80 3.87
  SD 0.45 0.38 0.24 0.48 0.54 0.15 0.48 0.25 0.15 0.73 0.41 0.34
Working memory            
 Digit span (forward) M 17.27 20.69 22.15 17.50 18.74 21.48 16.96 18.68 21.04 13.62 16.92 19.45
SD 4.29 3.79 2.44 3.37 4.08 2.76 3.24 3.90 3.04 3.71 4.87 3.55
 Digit span (backward) M 16.15 20.46 21.88 16.06 19.04 20.45 15.29 18.32 20.17 10.67 17.60 20.84
SD 5.14 4.51 3.85 4.61 3.86 3.68 5.40 4.20 3.73 5.21 4.42 3.49
 Pseudoword span M 11.19 14.50 14.87 11.67 12.57 14.20 10.30 12.35 14.43 10.33 10.79 13.19
SD 3.53 3.46 3.36 3.14 3.88 2.73 2.70 2.68 3.12 3.09 2.87 2.96
 Visuospatial working memory M 19.64 23.89 25.08 17.83 22.91 24.09 17.71 22.42 23.23 11.38 22.04 23.68
SD 6.01 5.63 3.17 7.21 4.90 3.99 5.56 5.28 3.78 7.05 6.00 4.26
Language              
 Rhyme M 3.58 3.77 3.94 3.47 3.48 3.82 3.32 3.58 3.81 2.86 3.52 3.74
  SD 0.75 0.49 0.24 0.77 0.67 0.39 0.91 0.67 0.39 0.95 0.59 0.45
 Phonemic subtraction M 5.30 5.77 5.87 5.17 5.26 5.80 5.00 5.55 5.89 3.62 5.32 5.61
  SD 1.10 0.54 0.49 1.40 0.97 0.55 1.16 0.77 0.31 1.69 1.41 0.56
 Listening M 4.73 4.87 4.87 4.86 4.61 4.82 4.79 4.81 4.89 4.71 4.84 4.97
  SD 0.45 0.34 0.35 0.35 0.50 0.39 0.42 0.40 0.31 0.46 0.37 0.18
 Inferential processing M 2.39 5.23 6.96 2.58 5.39 6.59 2.39 4.94 6.15 1.24 4.08 6.29
  SD 2.29 1.95 1.12 2.35 1.97 1.37 2.57 1.95 1.30 1.67 2.48 1.79
 Reading words and pseudowords M 15.03 16.03 16.52 14.17 15.74 16.34 13.46 16.10 16.17 9.67 15.40 16.29
SD 1.94 1.04 0.58 3.73 1.39 0.57 4.28 0.94 0.70 5.41 1.63 0.74
 Reading comprehension M 4.82 4.97 4.90 4.56 4.96 4.98 4.75 4.94 4.98 3.76 4.88 4.94
SD 0.53 0.16 0.69 1.11 0.21 0.15 0.59 0025 0.15 1.26 0.44 0.25
 spelling M 15.03 17.79 18.44 14.03 17.26 18.43 13.36 17.60 18.15 8.70 16.40 18.19
SD 2.65 1.32 0.73 4.28 1.57 0.45 4.08 1.40 1.12 5.95 2.12 1.01
 Spontaneous writing M 1.33 1.90 1.96 1.25 1.78 1.84 1.11 1.84 1.81 0.67 1.24 1.84
SD 0.65 0.31 0.19 0.84 0.42 0.37 0.79 0.45 0.45 0.80 0.52 0.37
 Written copy of words M 1.70 1.92 1.98 1.75 1.96 1,91 1.61 1.81 2.00 1.71 1.76 1.97
SD 0.47 0.27 0.14 0.50 0.21 0,29 0.57 0.48 0 0.46 0.44 0.18
Executive Functions           
 Orthographic verbal fluency M 5.58 8.03 10.02 6.11 7.78 9.70 5.86 7.84 9.89 4.40 7.87 8.52
SD 2.37 3.44 3.32 3.05 3.83 2.90 2.88 2.91 4.27 2.11 3.04 3.72
 Semantic verbal fluency M 11.82 14.77 18.46 12.56 15.39 15.95 11.36 13.19 16.96 10.00 12.44 15.74
SD 3.69 3.38 3.94 3.86 5.05 5.26 4.67 3.89 5.11 4.10 3.71 4.67
 go-no go task M 51.42 55.03 57.13 50.17 55.96 57.89 49.68 55.94 57.09 45.70 52.04 56.90
SD 6.36 3.54 4.82 7.76 4.65 2.89 6.35 3.72 3.27 6.91 6.96 3.66
  1. Obs. M Mean, SD standard deviation